El gobierno argentino anuncia una profunda reforma fiscal, pero necesita pactarla

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El Gobierno de Mauricio Macri empieza su oleada de reformas tras la victoria electoral del 22 de octubre con un asunto clave: los impuestos. Algunos de ellos tienen tasas en Argentina muy por encima de la media de la región para financiar a un Estado que ha crecido mucho especialmente en los últimos años del kirchnerismo, pero el enorme fraude fiscal hace que la recaudación esté muy por debajo de la media de la OCDE. El resultado es que los que pagan impuestos en Argentina los pagan muy altos, mientras una enorme mayoría encuentra la manera de esquivarlos y moverse en la enorme economía informal.

Nicolás Dujovne, ministro de Economía, presentó una profunda reforma fiscal que tiene como resultado final una bajada de impuestos en cinco años de 1,5% del PIB argentino, aunque no todo son rebajas. Algunos impuestos suben para compensar la rebaja de otros, y aparece uno nuevo especialmente simbólico: el gravamen sobre la renta financiera.

Argentina, un auténtico paraíso financiero con tipos de interés del 27%, prácticamente únicos en el mundo, donde es más fácil hacer fortuna moviendo el dinero en el llamado microcentro, la city porteña, que lograrlo con una empresa, la renta financiera no está gravada, al contrario de lo que sucede en casi todos los países de la OCDE.

El kirchnerismo, pese a su discurso oficial contra los especuladores, nunca se animó a gravarla por temor a que eso espantara aún más a los grandes capitales. Macri y Dujovne instalan por primera vez un asunto delicado en un país acostumbrado a funcionar con un Estado que recibe préstamos cada día de sus ciudadanos y con eso mantiene la rueda. El impuesto será del 15% para rentas en dólares y 5% para inversiones en renta fija en pesos.

La reforma pretende también fomentar el consumo en productos que hoy están por las nubes, como los electrónicos, que los argentinos prefieren comprar en Chile. Los celulares, por ejemplo, tenían una alícuota de 17% que ahora será eliminada poco a poco hasta llegar a cero. Lo mismo con los autos y motos de gama media. Para compensar esa bajada habrá subidas en los impuestos a los autos de lujo y grandes embarcaciones.

Dujovne aclaró que la reforma será a cinco años porque el Gobierno no puede darse el lujo de bajar abruptamente su ingresos. “El problema es que tenemos dos objetivos que se contradicen entre sí: por un lado tenemos que bajar impuestos, pero también necesitamos reducir el déficit”, dijo. Y puso como ejemplo a Chile y Uruguay, “nuestros vecinos que han implementado reformas tributarias con esta gradualidad”.

El Gobierno presentará la reforma en el Congreso dentro de dos semanas. Hasta entonces deberá negociar con los bloques de los distintos partidos para sumar consensos. Los legisladores conocieron los detalles del proyecto de ley hoy mismo, durante un encuentro en el ministerio de Hacienda. “Esperamos contar con el apoyo de parte de la oposición, porque estamos yendo hacia un sistema financiero más serio como el de los países desarrollados, porque aspiramos a desarrollarnos”, dijo el ministro. Pese al triunfo electoral en las legislativas de octubre, el oficialismo no tiene en el Congreso la mayoría necesaria para imponer proyectos sin el consenso del peronismo. Macri ha apelado a los sectores más moderados de ese partido, hasta ahora eje del poder en Argentina, para impulsar las normas que pretende aprobar durante la segunda mitad de su mandato, como una reforma laboral y la que presentó ahora, la tributaria. Las negociaciones pondrán a prueba su fortaleza política.

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Publicado por ➦ JGG

Fuente: El pais

 

 

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