Por primera vez logran clonar a dos monos

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Hace 22 años nació el primer mamífero clonado. Su nombre era Dolly, la oveja era el resultado de una combinación nuclear de una célula donante diferenciada y un óvulo no fecundado y sin núcleo. Murió en 2003 a consecuencia de una enfermedad pulmonar, pero ahora científicos chinos utilizaron la misma técnica para crear dos monos, completamente sanos.

Desde aquella primera clonación los científicos han logrado crear a cerca de 23 especies de mamíferos, como vacas, cerdos y ratones, pero ésta es la primera ocasión en que logran copiar un primate, el orden que incluye a los monos, los simios y los seres humanos.

“Se ha superado la barrera de clonar una especie de primate”, aseguró Muming Poo, integrante de la Academia de Ciencias de China en Shangai.

En un estudio publicado en la revista Cell, los integrantes del equipo (Zhen Liu, Yijun Cai, Yan Wang, Yanhong Nie, Chenchen Zhang, Yuting Xu, Xiaotong Zhang, Yong Lu, Zhanyang Wang, Mu-ming Poo y Qiang Sun) explicaron que para lograr el nacimiento de las dos hembras, llamadas Zhong Zhong y Hua Hua, se necesitaron 127 óvulos y 21 macacos.

En una segunda parte del proyecto se obtuvieron 41 embarazos pero en ninguno se logró obtener bebés sanos.

“La principal razón para clonar a estos primates es porque son muy cercanos a los humanos evolutivamente y pueden ayudar en tareas de investigación de enfermedades cerebrales, cáncer o transtornos metabólicos”, explicó en esa llamada el neurobiólogo Mu-Ming Poo, del equipo científico de clonación.

Cuestionado sobre si su equipo estaría interesado en aplicar esta técnica para clonar humanos, el investigador descartó la idea y aseguró que “no tienen intención” de hacerlo.

Gracias a este avance, ahora es posible crear poblaciones de investigación de monos idénticos y personalizados, que según Mu-ming Poo y sus colegas reducirían la cantidad de primates utilizados en los experimentos de laboratorio.

En las últimas dos décadas, ha habido científicos de todo el mundo que han intentado clonar primates no humanos, aunque sin éxito.

De hecho, a finales de la década de los noventa, los científicos crearon un gemelo de mono artificialmente, Tetra, dividiendo un embrión, un proceso que no se puede usar para clonar animales adultos y que no se puede repetir para crear copias clónicas idénticas.

En el caso de la clonación a través de la transferencia nuclear de células somáticas, los investigadores cortan el núcleo de un óvulo e insertan un núcleo de la célula del individuo que quieren clonar.

El resultado es un embrión con material genético idéntico a la célula del donante y es una técnica que puede llegar a producir numerosos animales exactamente iguales.

“Éste es un procedimiento muy difícil y delicado”, aseguró Mu-Ming Poo, que pasó tres años perfeccionando este cambio nuclear con sus colegas.

“Todavía es muy ineficiente en esta especie y queda mucho progreso por hacer”, reconoció el investigador chino.

Los científicos planean continuar mejorando la técnica, que también se beneficiará del trabajo futuro en otros laboratorios, y monitorear el desarrollo físico e intelectual de Zhong Zhong y Hua Hua.

Las crías actualmente se alimentan con biberón y están creciendo normalmente en comparación con los monos de su edad.

“Somos muy conscientes de que la investigación futura con primates no humanos en cualquier lugar del mundo depende de que los científicos sigan normas éticas muy estrictas”, concluyó Mu-ming Poo

 

Para denuncias ciudadanas contáctenos vía Whatsapp ➦ 8092736774

 

Publicado por ➦ CV

 

 

 

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Fuente: La Razón

 

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